Pax Academica
Bulletin on Academic Freedom in Africa

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This section will present items for critical analysis and information on important publications dealing with academic freedom in Africa and, more generally, in the world.

17 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: Nigeria

Many schools were bombed, set on fire or attacked by militants in the north – and increasingly militants turned their attention to students and teachers. Dozens of school teachers were murdered, and at universities there were very heavy casualties in attacks by gunmen firing indiscriminately and in some cases also using...

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15 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: Libya

More than 200 schools were used by armed groups during the 2011 uprising against the Gaddafi regime and more than 1,900 schools were damaged or destroyed.

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15 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: Zimbabwe

Hundreds of university students were unlawfully arrested or unlawfully detained during 2009-2012, and police and state security forces violently repressed several protests at universities. School teachers faced intimidation and death threats, and some schools were used as militia bases.

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15 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: Somalia

Islamic militants recruited large numbers of children from school and abducted girls for forced marriage to fighters. Suicide bombings targeting students took a very heavy toll, and schools and universities were used as military bases for fighting

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14 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: Ethiopia

Arbitrary arrest, ill-treatment and torture of university students, particularly of Oromo ethnicity, were documented, as were surveillance and intimidation of teacher trade unionists.

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14 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: South Sudan

Schools were destroyed, damaged and looted by armed groups and armed forces during ­
inter-communal violence and border incursions during 2009-2013. Dozens of schools were used for military purposes, some for up to five years.

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14 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: Central African Republic

Most attacks took place after the Séléka rebellion in late 2012 and during 2013. More than 100 schools were damaged, destroyed or looted, two dozen were used for military purposes and there were reports of students and teachers being killed. By early 2013, one in two schools had closed.

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14 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: Cote d’Ivoire

In Côte d’Ivoire, armed groups and military forces destroyed, damaged, looted or used almost 500 schools and universities during the 2010-2011 post-election crisis.

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14 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: Mali

Some 130 schools were looted, destroyed or used by armed groups and government forces during fighting in the north of the country, notably in 2012 and early 2013.The conflict caused widespread disruption of education

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14 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: Egypt

Political and sectarian tensions led to sporadic attacks against schools, damage and looting of university buildings, and arbitrary arrest and injury of students 
on campus

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