Pax Academica
Bulletin on Academic Freedom in Africa


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14 April 2014
Zeynabou Kane

Education under attack: Egypt

Political and sectarian tensions led to sporadic attacks against schools, damage and looting of university buildings, and arbitrary arrest and injury of students 
on campus


On 11 February 2011, President Hosni Mubarak was ousted following a popular uprising, and after one-and-a-half years of military rule, Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood was elected President. However, in July 2013, the military deposed him, leading to a violent crackdown on his supporters. Security forces killed more than 600 pro-Morsi protesters during the dispersal of two Cairo sit-ins on 14 August 2013. Sharp divisions, especially between Islamists and secular groups, continued to result in violent confrontations Under Mubarak, there was a history of staff and students at universities being closely monitored by plainclothes state security on campus.678 In October 2010, an administrative court ordered security forces off university campuses. Egypt’s net primary enrolment was estimated at 96 per cent (2011),680 gross secondary enrolment was 72 per cent (2010) and gross tertiary enrolment was 29 per cent (2011). The adult literacy rate was 72 per cent (2010).

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