The Council for Social Science Research in Africa’s (CODESRIA) project on security regimens in Africa seeks to generate knowledge on security measures in Africa and promote the influence of such knowledge on practical efforts at grappling with security threats on the continent. In many African countries ensuring security has been as important and challenging as the task of promoting sustainable development. Recent attacks by fundamentalist groups in Mali and Cote d’Ivoire have combined with routine attacks by similar groups in other areas including East, North and Central Africa to focus attention on security. These attacks are only part of a wide array of evolving security challenges in Africa. Civil wars and intercommunal violence, electoral crises, transnational organized crime, human rights abuses, etc. combine with forms of structural violence, including poverty, rising inequality and the marginalization of groups based on gender and citizenship to endanger lives and communities.